Miscarriage can be a difficult experience both physically and emotionally. A small percentage of women (usually only 1%), will have two or more miscarriages in their lifetime. This is referred to as repeated pregnancy loss or recurrent miscarriages.
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Causes of Recurrent Miscarriages
It is estimated that around 60% of miscarriages happen if an embryo receives an abnormal number of chromosomes when it is fertilized (1). This is more likely to occur as a woman gets older because of the change in egg quality.
Translocation is when sperm or eggs have abnormal chromosomes. Excessive genetic material, or not enough, can lead to miscarriage.
Scarring in the uterus from Asherman’s Syndrome may cause repeated pregnancy loss, as well as polyps or fibroids. A septate uterus, in which a wall of tissue partially divides the uterus, may be another cause (1).
Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS): the immune system makes antibodies that affect normal blood clotting impacts pregnancy. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and diabetes can also cause miscarriages (1).
Sometimes there is no exact answer why a pregnancy loss occurs.
For the couple (2):
- A detailed background on genetic, medical, and family history
- Karotype, or genetic makeup test, to look for abnormalities
- Thyroid function tests
For women (2):
- Evaluation of the uterine cavity via ultrasound or hysteroscopy
- Diabetes tests
- Hormone tests, such as prolactin measurement
- Check for antiphosphlipid antibodies
- Tests for abnormally increased blood clotting
- Ovarian functioning
After your doctor identifies what is causing recurrent miscarriages, she can choose the best course of treatment for you or your partner.
NAC supplements may help with PCOS symptoms
- IVF: In Vitro Fertilization with preimplantation genetic diagnosis in option. They biopsy a cell from the embryo to check if its chromosomes are abnormal.
- Genetic Counseling: This can occur during the prenatal period or placental biopsies during the first trimester.
- Surgery: For uterine abnormalities.
- Medication: for reducing blood clotting, help diabetes, or thyroid dysfunction.